Microwave components and cables are used in quantum computing to transmit signals that manipulate the state of qubits at low temperatures, typically at millikelvin (mK) temperatures. These microwave components are usually designed to operate at temperatures ranging from -40°C to +80°C for most applications. Although some of these microwave components are assumed to operate at mK temperatures, their scattering parameters (S-parameters), which is a measure of their electrical performance, may significantly deviate from room temperature specifications. Techniques to precisely characterize these devices at low temperatures is essential to support the development of new and improved cryogenic microwave components to create high performance, energy efficient quantum computing systems. In this talk, various strategies, and techniques to characterize S-parameters of microwave devices at low temperatures will be discussed. An NPL developed microwave calibration unit is then used to characterise the performance of newly developed cryogenic attenuators, in partnership with Heynen.
Manoj Stanley, National Physical Laboratory (on behalf of Heynen)
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